ANTALYA

History of Antalya & Old Town

Antalya

Antalya which means “the home of Attalos” was founded by Attalos II. Following the fall of Kingdom of Pergamon (133 BC), the city was independent for a while but then fell into the hands of pirates. It was later incorporated into the Roman Empire by Commander Servilius Isauricus in 77 BC. In 67 BC, the city then became a naval base for Pompeius. In 130 AD, the visit of Hadrianus provided progress for Attalia city. Attalia which was accepted as the centre of episcopacy during the Byzantine period made great advancements after possessed by Turks. Since modern city is located on the ancient settlement, the ruins of antiquity can barely be traced. The first one of the ruins that can be seen is the part of harbour pier that indicates the old harbour and the walls surrounding the harbour. Hadrian’s Gate with ongoing restoration works on the other side of the walls is one of the unique ancient monuments of Antalya.

In antiquity, Antalya and its surroundings were known as “Pamphilia” meaning “very productive” and the west side of the city was known as “Lycia”. The people who migrate from the west coasts of Aegean Sea founded the cities like Aspendos, Side in VIII century BC. The King of Pergamon who reigns in II century besieged Side. The King who could not capture Side came to a place where now Antalya city centre is located and founded the city. The city was named after him as Attaleia. In time, people called the city Atalia, Adalya. The name Antalya originated this way.

In the archaeological excavations, people were proved to have lived in Antalya and its environs 40.000 years ago. From the date 2000 BC, this region was ruled under the control of city states such as Hittite, Pamphylia, Lycia, Cilicia and Persia, Great Alexander and its successors Antigonos, Ptolemais, Selevkos and the king of Pergamon. Roman Period later started to reign. The ancient name of Antalya was Pamphylia and the cities built in this area lived their golden age especially in II and III century. Towards V century, they began to lose their glory.

While the area was under Eastern Roman Empire or, widely known name in Turkey, Byzantines, in 1207 the Seljuks took over the lands. In the period of Anatolian principalities, the city entered into sovereignty of Hamitoğulları which was a family from Teke tribe. Teke Turkmen are also one of the largest populated tribe in today’s Turkmenistan, old Turkish homeland. In XI century, a part of this tribe came to Antalya. Today Teke Area is another name of the region of Lake (Göller Yöresi) which covers the north of Antalya and some parts of Isparta and Burdur. In the Ottoman period, today’s Antalya city centre is the centre of the Teke District of Anatolia Province. In those years, this place is called Teke District. The current name of the city is a changed form of her ancient name and has been given in the Republican period. Evliya Çelebi, the Ottoman traveller, who came to Antalya in the second half of the XVII century, stated that there were 4 quarters and 3.000 houses inside the ancient walls and 24 quarters outside the walls. The market of the city was outside the walls. According to Evliya Çelebi, the Harbour had the capacity of 200 ships. Antalya which was the centre of Teke district connected to Konya administratively was made an independent district in the last period of Ottoman Empire.

Old Town

The ancient city of Antalya was protected by two walls, in the shape of a horseshoe, one running along the shoreline and the other inland. There were also walls built specifically to separate settlements from eachother and watch towers were built every fifty feet or so along the outer walls. These walls date back to ancient times when the Romans built on the Hellenic foundations. Eventually these were widened and repaired by the Selchuks.

Many stone blocks with ancient inscriptions were used and the walls were well protected until the 19th century. Some remains of the walls can still be seen today as well as a few turrets, Hadrian's Gate, the Clock Tower and the Hidirlik Tower. Nowadays the ancient city centre surrounded by sea and land walls is called the Kaleiçi. The streets and buildings still bear the marks of Antalya's history. The characteristics of the old houses tell not only a tale of architecture but also reflect the social lives, customs and habits of the people who dwelled in old Antalya and provide us with much valuable information about that time.

The streets in the old town are narrow and slope upwards from the harbour. Some very interesting historical sites to visit within the old town are the mosque with the truncated minaret, the fluted minaret (Yivli Minare) the Keyhusrev Medrese, the Karatay Medrese, the Iskele Mosque and the Tekeli Mehmet Pasa Mosque and various old chapels especially the Church of St. George which has been beautifully restored by the Suna-Inan Kiraç foundation. The presence of churches in the old town reflects the recent chequered history of the area. During the 19th century there were many inhabitants of Greek and Armenian origin who lived and traded happily alongside their Turkish counterparts. And it is this multicultural aspect of the old town that gives it its very distinctive atmosphere.

The yacht harbour and surrounds offer awe-inspiring views both day and night that have moved many a local and foreign painter, poet and writer to achieve great works.

Historic Sites

Perge

Perga or Perge (Greek: Πέργη Perge, Turkish: Perge) was an ancient Greek city in Anatolia, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the coastal plain. Located there is an acropolis dating back to the Bronze Age.

Alexander's was followed by the Diadochi empire of the Seleucids.

In 46 A.D., according to the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul journeyed to Perga, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia, then returned to Perga where he preached the word of God (Acts 14:25). Then he left the city and went to Attaleia.

In the first half of the 4th century, during the reign of Constantine the Great (324-337), Perga became an important centre of Christianity, which soon became the official religion of the Roman Empire. The city retained its status as a Christian centre in the 5th and 6th centuries.

St. Paul the Apostle and his companion St. Barnabas, twice visited Perga as recorded in the biblical book, the Acts of the Apostles, during their first missionary journey, where they "preached the word" before heading for and sailing from Attalia (modern-day Antalya city), 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) to the southwest, to Antioch.

Paul and Barnabas came to Perge during their first missionary journey, but probably stayed there only a short time, and do not seem to have preached there; it was there that John Mark left Paul to return to Jerusalem. On his return from Pisidia Paul preached at Perge.

The Greek Notitiae episcopatuum mentions the city as metropolis of Pamphylia Secunda until the 13th century. Le Quien gives the names of 11 of its bishops: Epidaurus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 312; Callicles at the First Council of Nicaea in 325; Berenianus, at Constantinople (426); Epiphanius at the Second Council of Ephesus (449), at the First Council of Chalcedon (451), and a signatory of the letter from the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo (458); Hilarianus, at a council at Constantinople in 536; Eulogius, at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553; Apergius, condemned as a Monothelite at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680; John, at the Trullan council in 692; Sisinnius Pastillas about 754 (an iconoclast who was condemned at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787); Constans, at the same council of that condemned his predecessor; John, at the Council of Constantinople of 869–70.

No longer a residential, the bishopric is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.

Aspendos

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek Άσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) northeast of central Serik.

Aspendos was an ancient city in Pamphylia, Asia Minor, located about 40 km east of the modern city of Antalya, Turkey. It was situated on the Eurymedon River about 16 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea; it shared a border with, and was hostile to, Side. According to later tradition, the (originally non-Greek) city was founded around 1000 BC by Greeks who may have come from Argos. The wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that, in the 5th century BC, Aspendos had become the most important city in Pamphylia. At that time the Eurymedon River was navigable as far as Aspendos, and the city derived great wealth from a trade in salt, oil, and wool.

Aspendos did not play an important role in antiquity as a political force. Its political history during the colonization period corresponded to the currents of the Pamphylian region. Within this trend, after the colonial period, it remained for a time under Lycian hegemony. In 546 B.C. it came under Persian domination. The face that the city continued to mint coins in its own name, however, indicates that it had a great deal of freedom even under the Persians.

In 467 B.C. the statesman and military commander Cimon, and his fleet of 200 ships, destroyed the Persian navy based at the mouth of the river Eurymedon in a surprise attack. In order to crush to Persian land forces, he tricked the Persians by sending his best fighters to shore wearing the garments of the hostages he had seized earlier. When they saw these men, the Persians thought that they were compatriots freed by the enemy and arranged festivities in celebration. Taking advantage of this, Cimon landed and annihilated the Persians. Aspendos then became a member of the Attic-Delos Maritime league.

The Persians captured the city again in 411 B.C. and used it as a base. In 389 B.C. the commander of Athens, in an effort to regain some of the prestige that city had lost in the Peloponnesian Wars, anchored off the coast of Aspendos in an effort to secure its surrender. Hoping to avoid a new war, the people of Aspendos collected money among themselves and gave it to the commander, entreating him to retreat without causing any damage. Even though he took the money, he had his men trample all the crops in the fields. Enraged, the Aspendians stabbed and killed the Athenian commander in his tent.

When Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 B.C. after capturing Perge, the citizens sent envoys to him to request that he would not establish that he be given the taxes and horses that they had formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. After reaching this agreement. Alexander went to Side, leaving a garrison there on the city's surrender. Going back through Sillyon, he learned that the Aspendians had failed to ratify the agreement their envoys had proposed and were preparing to defend themselves. Alexander marched to the city immediately. When they saw Alexander returning with his troops, the Aspendians, who had retreated to their acropolis, again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to very harsh terms; a Macedonian garrison would remain in the city and 100 gold talents as well as 4.000 horses would be given in tax annually.

In 190 BC the city surrendered to the Romans, who later pillaged it of its artistic treasures. Toward the end of the Roman period the city began a decline that continued throughout Byzantine times.

Termessos

Termessos (Greek Τερμησσός) was a Pisidian city built at an altitude of more than 1000 meters at the south-west side of the mountain Solymos (modern-day Güllük Dağı) in the Taurus Mountains (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey). It lies 30 kilometres to the north-west of Antalya. It was founded on a natural platform on top of Güllük Dağı, soaring to a height of 1,665 metres from among the surrounding travertine mountains of Antalya, which average only 200 metres above sea level.

Termessos is one of the best preserved of the ancient cities of Turkey. The ancient city was founded by the Solims who lived in the Psidia Region. Although there are no facts available about Termessos and Solims, they are referenced by Homer in the Iliad in connection with the legend of Bellerophon.

Termessos constitutes an unusual synthesis of a large number of rare plants and animal species, which are under protection in 'The Güllük Mountain (Termessos) National Park'. Concealed by a multitude of wild plants and bounded by dense pine forests, the site, with its peaceful and untouched appearance, has a more distinct and impressive atmosphere than other ancient cities. Because of its natural and historical riches, the city has been included in a National Park bearing its name.

Side

Side (Greek: Σίδη) is an ancient Greek city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey, a resort town and one of the best-known classical sites in the country. It lies near Manavgat and the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya) in the province of Antalya.

It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across.

Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia. This most likely occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena, whose head adorned its coinage.

Dating from the tenth century B.C., its coinage bore the head of Athena (Minerva), the patroness of the city, with a legend. Its people, a piratical horde, quickly forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines.

Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region. According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language. The inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history. The name Side may be Anatolian in origin, meaning pomegranate[citation needed]; alternatively, it may be related to the Greek words for rail (σιδη) and railway (σιδηρόδρομος).

Next to no information exists concerning Side under Lydian and Persian sovereignty.

Antalya Waterfalls

Düden Waterfall

Düden Waterfalls are a group of waterfalls in the province of Antalya, Turkey. The waterfalls, formed by the Düden River (one of the major rivers in southern Anatolia), are located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north-east of Antalya. They end where the waters of the Lower Düden Falls drop off a rocky cliff directly into the Mediterranean Sea.

At the 28th and 30th kilometre markers (17 and 19 miles) of the old route from Antalya-Burdur (which goes through Döşemealtı town), two big karstic sources appear. These sources, Kırkgözler and Pınarbaşı, merge after a short flow and disappear into Bıyıklı Sinkhole. Some of the sinkholes can swallow a river or lake. In this region, the Suğla (Konya) big sinkhole and the Bıyıklı sinkhole output 30 cubic metres per second (1,100 cu ft/s). This quantity is the output of Kırkgöz and Pınarbaşı springs at inundation.

The water, which disappears at Bıyıklı Sinkhole, travels 14 km (9 mi) underground and comes out again at Varsak pit. After a very short fall, it disappears again from the other end. The water which disappears at Varsak goes underground for 2 km (1.2 mi) and comes out again at Düdenbasi, by pressure made by a syphon. The water which falls from Düdenbasi is the water coming from Kepez Hydroelectrical Complex.

A regulator built in front of the Bıyıklı Sinkhole directs the waters of Kırkgözler and Pınarbaşı into a canal to the Kepez Hydroelectric Plant, where a pressure pipe carries it to a balancing funnel and drops it over the plant's turbines.

The water from the plant's discharge unit is brought to Düdenbaşı again by a long canal, where it forms artificial cascades. From there the amount of water is that of a large river. Seven irrigation trenches distribute the water to land north-east of Antalya.

After Düdenbasi, the waters of Düdençay separate into a number of streams and finally, east of Antalya, cascade 40 metres (131 ft) from a platform into the Mediterranean. A park surrounds these waterfalls. They can be seen from the sea by taking a boat trip from Antalya yacht harbour.

Manavgat Waterfall

Manavgat Waterfall on the Manavgat River is near the city of Side, 3 km (2 mi) north of Manavgat, Turkey. Its high flow over a wide area as it falls from a low height is best viewed from a high altitude.

The white, foaming water of the Manavgat Waterfalls flows powerfully over the rocks. Near the waterfalls are shady tea gardens providing a pleasant resting place.

The Oymapinar Dam is located 12 km (7 mi) to the north of the river.

During floods, the Manavgat Falls may disappear under high water.

Reverse of the 5 lira banknote (1968-1983)

The waterfall was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknotes of 1968-1983.

Kurşunlu Waterfall

The Kurşunlu Waterfall is located 19 km from Antalya, Turkey at the end of a 7 km road branching off to the north of the Antalya-Serik-Alanya highway at a point 12 km east of Antalya. It is reduced to a mere trickle in the summer months.

The waterfall is on one of the tributaries of the Aksu River, where the tributary drops from Antalya's plateau to the coastal plain. It is situated in the midst of a pine forest of exceptional beauty, and the environs provide a picnic and pleasure spot about twenty minutes by car from the centre of the city of Antalya.

Kılıçaslan Mah. Zeytin Çıkmazi Sok No 6 Old Town - ANTALYA TURKEY
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